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| Home | A Brief Summary | a BiOgRaPhY: A dEePeR LoOk | How the theory came about... | The 8 Developmental Stages | Related Links | Trust vs. Mistrust | AUTONOMOY VS. SHAME & DOUBT | Initiative vs. Guilt | INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY | Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion | INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION | GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION | INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR

The 8 Developmental Stages


A Brief Look at the Super 8 Psychosocial Stages


Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages
(syntonic v dystonic)

Freudian psycho- sexual stages

life stage / relationships / issues

basic virtue and second named strength (potential positive outcomes from each crisis)

maladaptation / malignancy (potential negative outcome - one or the other - from unhelpful experience during each crisis)

1. Trust v Mistrust


infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping

Hope and Drive

Sensory Distortion / Withdrawal

2. Autonomy v Shame & Doubt


toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking

Willpower and Self-Control

Impulsivity / Compulsion

3. Initiative v Guilt


preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play

Purpose and Direction

Ruthlessness / Inhibition

4. Industry v Inferiority


schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighbourhood / achievement and accomplishment

Competence and Method

Narrow Virtuosity / Inertia

5. Identity v Role Confusion

Puberty and Genitality

adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up

Fidelity and Devotion

Fanaticism / Repudiation

6. Intimacy v Isolation


young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life

Love and Affiliation

Promiscuity / Exclusivity

7. Generativity v Stagnation


mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing

Care and Production

Overextension / Rejectivity

8. Integrity v Despair


late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievements 

Wisdom and Renunciation

Presumption / Disdain


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