is a Freudian ego-psychologist. This means that he accepts Freud's ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable
ideas such as the Oedipal complex, and accepts as well the ideas about the ego that were added by other Freudian loyalists
such as Heinz Hartmann and, of, course, Anna Freud. However, Erikson is much more society and culture-oriented than most Freudians,
as you might expect from someone with his anthropological interests, and he often pushes the instincts and the unconscious
practically out of the picture. Perhaps because of this, Erikson is popular among Freudians and non-Freudians alike!
The Epigenetic Principle
He is most famous for his work in refining and expanding Freud's
theory of stages. Development, he says, functions by the epigenetic principle. This principle says that we develop through
a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our
success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages. A little like the unfolding of a rose bud, each petal opens up at
a certain time, in a certain order, which nature, through its genetics, has determined. If we interfere in the natural order
of development by pulling a petal forward prematurely or out of order, we ruin the development of the entire flower.
Each stage involves certain developmental tasks that are psychosocial in nature.
Although he follows Freudian tradition by calling them crises, they are more drawn out and less specific than that term implies.
The child in grammar school, for example, has to learn to be industrious during that period of his or her life, and that industriousness
is learned through the complex social interactions of school and family.
The various tasks are referred to by two terms. The infant's
task, for example, is called "trust-mistrust." At first, it might seem obvious that the infant must learn trust and not mistrust.
But Erikson made it clear that there it is a balance we must learn: Certainly, we need to learn mostly trust; but we also
need to learn a little mistrust, so as not to grow up to become gullible fools!
Each stage has a certain optimal time as well. It is no use trying
to rush children into adulthood, as is so common among people who are obsessed with success. Neither is it possible to slow
the pace or to try to protect our children from the demands of life. There is a time for each task.
If a stage is managed well, we carry away a certain virtue
or psychosocial strength which will help us through the rest of the stages of our lives. On the other hand, if we don't do
so well, we may develop maladaptations and malignancies, as well as endanger all our future development. A malignancy is the
worse of the two, and involves too little of the positive and too much of the negative aspect of the task, such as a person
who can't trust others. A maladaptation is not quite as bad and involves too much of the positive and too little of the negative,
such as a person who trusts too much.
Perhaps Erikson's greatest innovation was
to postulate not five stages, as Freud had done, but eight. Erikson elaborated Freud's genital stage into adolescence plus
three stages of adulthood. We certainly don't stop developing -- especially psychologically -- after our twelfth or thirteenth
birthdays; It seems only right to extend any theory of stages to cover later development!
Erikson also had some things to say about the interaction of
generations, which he called mutuality. Freud had made it abundantly clear that a child's parents influence his or her development
dramatically. Erikson pointed out that children influence their parents' development as well. The arrival of children, for
example, into a couple's life, changes that life considerably, and moves the new parents along their developmental paths.
It is even appropriate to add a third (and in some cases, a fourth) generation to the picture: our grandparents, and they
have influenced many of us by us.
A particularly clear example of mutuality can be seen in the
problems of the teenage mother. Although the mother and her child may have a fine life together, often the mother is still
involved in the tasks of adolescence, that is, in finding out who she is and how she fits into the larger society. The relationship
she has or had with the child's father may have been immature on one or both sides, and if they don't marry, she will have
to deal with the problems of finding and developing a relationship as well. The infant, on the other hand, has the simple,
straight-forward needs that infants have, and the most important of these is a mother with the mature abilities and social
support a mother should have. If the mother's parents step in to help, as one would expect, then they, too, are thrown off
of their developmental tracks, back into a life-style they thought they had passed, and which they might find terribly demanding.
And so on....
The ways in which our lives intermesh
are terribly complex and very frustrating to the theorist. But ignoring them is to ignore something vitally important about
our development and our personalities.